Ship Design Methodologies of Preliminary Design


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Buku ini berkaitan dengan desain kapal dan khususnya dengan metodologi dari desain awal kapal. Buku ini dilengkapi dengan daftar pustaka dasar dan lima lampiran dengan berguna grafik diperbarui untuk pemilihan dimensi utama dan karakteristik dasar lain dari berbagai jenis kapal (Lampiran A), penentuan bentuk lambung dari data lambung sistematis bentuk seri (Lampiran B), penjelasan rinci tentang metode relasional untuk estimasi awal bobot kapal (Lampiran C), review singkat dari evolusi sejarah ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi pembuatan kapal dari jaman prasejarah sampai saat ini (Lampiran D) dan akhirnya ulasan sejarahperkembangan peraturan kerusakan stabilitas kapal sampai saat ini (Lampiran E).

Buku ini dapat digunakan sebagai buku teks untuk kursus desain kapal atau membaca sebagai tambahan untuk universitas atau perguruan tinggi siswa kursus arsitektur laut dan disiplin terkait;itu juga dapat berfungsi sebagai buku referensi untuk arsitek angkatan laut, berlatih insinyur dari disiplin terkait dan petugas kapal, yang suka untuk memasuki bidang desain kapal sistematis atau menggunakan metodologi praktis untuk estimasi dimensi utama kapal dan kapal sifat utama lainnya dan elemendesain kapal.

1 General on Ship Design ………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Conventional and Advanced Marine Vehicles ……………………………. 1
1.2 Maritime Transport—Innovative Design Concepts, Energy
Efficiency and Environmental Impact ………………………………………. 4
1.3 Introduction to Ship Design …………………………………………………….. 14
1.3.1 Main Approach to Ship Design ……………………………………… 14
1.3.2 Main Phases of Ship Design …………………………………………. 16
1.3.3 Objectives of Preliminary Design ………………………………….. 17
1.3.4 Design Procedure: Design Spiral …………………………………… 19
1.3.5 Owner’s Requirements: Statement of Work …………………….. 27
1.3.6 Preliminary Ship Design Methods …………………………………. 34
1.3.7 Basic Design Procedures for Main Ship Categories …………. 59
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
2 Selection of Main Dimensions and Calculation of Basic Ship
Design Values ……………………………………………………………………………….. 69
2.1 Preliminary Estimation of Displacement …………………………………… 69
2.2 Selection of the Main Dimensions and Form Coefficients …………… 73
2.3 Selection of Length ………………………………………………………………… 76
2.3.1 Effect of Length on Resistance ……………………………………… 77
2.3.2 Effect of Length on the Ship’s Strength and
Structural Weight …………………………………………………………. 90
2.3.3 Effect of Length on the Outfitting Weight ………………………. 98
2.3.4 Effect of Length on the Weight of Propulsion
System and Fuel Consumption ……………………………………… 98
2.3.5 Effect of Length on the Exploitation of Spaces and
General Arrangement …………………………………………………… 99
2.3.6 Other Factors Affecting the Selection of Length ……………… 100
2.3.7 Ship Length Estimation Using Empirical Formulas …………. 100
2.4 Slenderness Coefficient L/∇ 1/3 ………………………………………………… 114
2.4.1 Influence on the Ship’s Resistance …………………………………. 114
2.4.2 Effect on the Ship’s Structure ……………………………………….. 115
2.4.3 Approximate Values …………………………………………………….. 115
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2.5 Selection of Other Main Dimensions ………………………………………… 115
2.6 Selection of Beam ………………………………………………………………….. 119
2.6.1 Effect of Beam on the Ship’s Stability ……………………………. 121
2.6.2 Effect of Beam on the Ship’s Resistance ………………………… 124
2.6.3 Effect of Beam on the Ship’s Structural Weight ………………. 127
2.6.4 Other Factors Affecting the Selection of the Beam ………….. 129
2.7 Selection of the Side Depth ……………………………………………………… 132
2.7.1 Effect of Safety Regulations on Side Depth ……………………. 132
2.7.2 Effect of Side Depth on Hold Volume and Arrangement …… 133
2.7.3 Effect of Side Depth on the Ship’s Stability ……………………. 133
2.7.4 Effect of Side Depth on the Ship’s Structural Weight ……….. 134
2.8 Selection of the Draft ……………………………………………………………… 136
2.8.1 Effect of Draft on Resistance and Propulsion ………………….. 136
2.8.2 Effect of Draft on Stability ……………………………………………. 136
2.8.3 Influence of Draft on Seakeeping and Maneuverability ……. 137
2.8.4 Influence of Draft on Strength ………………………………………. 138
2.8.5 Effect of Route Limits ………………………………………………….. 138
2.9 Selection of Hull Form Coefficients …………………………………………. 140
2.10 Selection of Block Coefficient CB and Prismatic Coefficient CP …… 142
2.10.1 Effect of CP and CB on the Ship’s Resistance ………………… 144
2.10.2 Effect on the Seakeeping Performance …………………………. 146
2.10.3 Effect on the Construction Cost …………………………………… 147
2.10.4 Effect on the Exploitation of Spaces …………………………….. 148
2.10.5 Effect on the Stability …………………………………………………. 149
2.10.6 Approximate/Semiempirical Formulas …………………………. 150
2.11 Midship Section Coefficient CΜ ………………………………………………. 151
2.11.1 Effect on Resistance …………………………………………………… 152
2.11.2 Effect on Construction Cost ………………………………………… 154
2.11.3 Effect on Space Exploitation ……………………………………….. 155
2.11.4 Effect on Stability ………………………………………………………. 155
2.11.5 Effect on Seakeeping Performance ………………………………. 156
2.11.6 Approximation Formulas …………………………………………….. 158
2.12 Waterplane Area Coefficient CWP ……………………………………………… 160
2.12.1 Effect on Stability ……………………………………………………… 160
2.12.2 Effect on Resistance, Propulsion, and Seakeeping
Performance ……………………………………………………………… 162
2.12.3 Approximation Formulas ……………………………………………. 163
2.12.4 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………. 164
2.13 Determination of the Main Dimensions Through the Ship
Design Equation …………………………………………………………………….. 164
2.14 Preliminary Estimation of Propulsive Power ……………………………… 165
2.15 Estimation of Ship Weights ……………………………………………………… 175
2.15.1 Definitions of Ship Weight Components ………………………. 175
2.15.2 Initial Estimation of Weights and Their Centroids ………….. 177
2.15.3 Factors That Affect the Values of the Weight Coefficients …… 178
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2.15.4 Structural Weight ……………………………………………………….. 185
2.15.5 Weight of Equipment and Outfit ………………………………….. 214
2.15.6 Weight of Machinery Installation …………………………………. 231
2.15.7 Analysis of Deadweight DWT …………………………………….. 239
2.16 Verification of Displacement …………………………………………………… 245
2.17 Verification of Holds’ Capacity ………………………………………………… 246
2.17.1 Definitions ………………………………………………………………… 246
2.17.2 Calculation of Hold Volume ………………………………………… 251
2.18 Verification of Stability and Trim …………………………………………….. 255
2.18.1 Vertical Position of Buoyancy Center …………………………… 256
2.18.2 Metacentric Radius ……………………………………………………. 257
2.18.3 Vertical Position of Metacenter ……………………………………. 258
2.18.4 Approximation of Stability at Large Inclination Angles ….. 259
2.18.5 Using the Hydrostatic Data of Similar Ships …………………. 260
2.18.6 Effect of Changing the Main Dimensions ……………………… 260
2.18.7 Typical Values of Metacentric Height …………………………… 262
2.18.8 Verification of Stability ………………………………………………. 264
2.18.9 Verification of Trim and Bow Height ……………………………. 271
2.19 Freeboard and Sheer ………………………………………………………………. 273
2.19.1 Factors Affecting the Freeboard …………………………………… 273
2.19.2 Verification of Freeboard ……………………………………………. 275
2.19.3 Sheer ………………………………………………………………………… 280
2.19.4 Critical
Review of the Load Line Regulations ……………….. 289
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 291
3 Ship’s Hull Form ………………………………………………………………………….. 293
3.1 Distribution of Displacement …………………………………………………… 295
3.1.1 Shape of Sectional Area Curve ……………………………………… 295
3.1.2 Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy (LCB) ……………………….. 297
3.1.3 Parallel Body Length (LP ) ……………………………………………. 301
3.1.4 Length of Entrance (LE) and Length of Run (LR) of
the Sectional Area Curve ………………………………………………. 303
3.1.5 Angle of Entrance/Run of Sectional Area Curve ……………… 305
3.2 Form of Waterlines …………………………………………………………………. 307
3.3 Form of Sections ……………………………………………………………………. 312
3.3.1 Types of Sections ………………………………………………………… 312
3.3.2 Midship Section Form ………………………………………………….. 312
3.3.3 Form of Bow and Stern Sections …………………………………… 314
3.3.4 Bow Sections Below Waterline ……………………………………… 316
3.3.5 Stern Sections Below Waterline …………………………………….. 317
3.3.6 Form of Sections Above Waterline ………………………………… 321
3.4 Form of Bow …………………………………………………………………………. 323
3.4.1 Types of Bow ……………………………………………………………… 323
3.4.2 Bulbous Bow ……………………………………………………………… 331
3.4.3 Parabolic Bow …………………………………………………………….. 345
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3.5 Form of Stern ………………………………………………………………………… 347
3.5.1 Forms of Stern …………………………………………………………….. 347
3.5.2 Elliptic or Elevated Stern ……………………………………………… 349
3.5.3 Cruiser Stern ………………………………………………………………. 349
3.5.4 Transom Stern …………………………………………………………….. 353
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 357
4 Naval Architectural Drawings and Plans ………………………………………. 359
4.1 General …………………………………………………………………………………. 359
4.2 Ship Lines Plan ……………………………………………………………………… 360
4.3 Introduction to the Development of Ship Lines Plan …………………… 370
4.4 Design Based on Data of Systematic Ship Hull Form Series ……….. 377
4.5 General Arrangement Plan ………………………………………………………. 379
4.6 Capacity Plan ………………………………………………………………………… 389
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 391
5 Machinery Installation, Propulsion and Steering Devices ………………. 393
5.1 Selection of Main Machinery …………………………………………………… 393
5.2 Selection of Propeller ……………………………………………………………… 407
5.3 Selection of Rudder ………………………………………………………………… 425
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 437
6 Estimation of Building Cost ………………………………………………………….. 439
6.1 Statement of the Optimization Problem …………………………………….. 439
6.2 Building Cost Analysis …………………………………………………………… 440
6.3 Cost of Built/Processed Steel ………………………………………………….. 442
6.4 Cost of Machinery and Propulsive Installation …………………………… 445
6.5 Accommodation/Equipment/Outfitting Cost ……………………………… 446
References …………………………………………………………………………………….. 447
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………… 449
Appendix A: Diagrams of Regression Analysis of Basic Design
Values for Merchant Ships ………………………………………………………………. 449
Bulk Carriers …………………………………………………………………………. 450
OBO Carriers …………………………………………………………………………. 459
Containerships ……………………………………………………………………….. 462
Tankers …………………………………………………………………………………. 472
Product Carriers …………………………………………………………………….. 476
Chemical Carriers …………………………………………………………………. 482
General Cargo Carriers …………………………………………………………… 485
RO–RO Cargo Ships ………………………………………………………………. 488
RO–RO Passenger Ferries ………………………………………………………. 493
Single-Hull Fast Ferries ………………………………………………………….. 496
Car Carrying Catamarans ……………………………………………………….. 499
Contents
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Reefer Ships ………………………………………………………………………….. 501
Passenger/Cruise Ships …………………………………………………………… 505
Offshore Tug/Supply Ships ……………………………………………………… 508
Fishing Vessels ………………………………………………………………………. 511
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 516
Appendix B: Systematic Hull Form—Model Series …………………………… 517
Wageningen-Lap Series ………………………………………………………….. 518
Series 60 Hull Form—Todd et al. …………………………………………….. 519
FORMDATA Series ……………………………………………………………….. 525
MARAD Series ……………………………………………………………………… 547
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 560
Appendix C: Determination of Ship’s Displacement with the
Relational Method of Normand ……………………………………………………….. 561
Equation of Displacement for Small Deviations …………………………. 562
Displacement Equation for Larger Deviations ……………………………. 565
Normand’s Number ………………………………………………………………… 575
Accuracy of the Displacement Equation ……………………………………. 580
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 581
Appendix D: Historical Evolution of Shipbuilding …………………………….. 582
Before Christ Era …………………………………………………………………… 583
Middle Ages—Renaissance …………………………………………………….. 586
Industrial Revolution ………………………………………………………………. 587
First Half of the Twentieth Century ………………………………………….. 593
Second Half of the Twentieth Century ………………………………………. 595
Contemporary Period ……………………………………………………………… 598
Appendix E: Subdivision and Damage Stability of Ships—
Historical Developments and the Way Ahead …………………………………….. 610
The Evolution of Deterministic Damage Stability Standards ……….. 610
Present Status: Probabilistic Assessment …………………………………… 613
Future Developments of International Regulations and
Concepts: Risk and Goal based standards ………………………………….. 616
Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………… 617
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 620
Index …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 623
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